consider how these two elements are related. Finally, consider the topic you plan to use for your Research Proposal (and, potentially, for your dissertation), and why you feel it is a relevant survey research topic.
Respond to Amanda my colleague’s posting in one or more of the following ways:
*Ask a probing question.
Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings.
*Offer and support an opinion.
*Validate an idea with your own experience.
*Make a suggestion.
*Expand on your colleagues’ postings.
For the Discussion, Amanda had to select two of the following research elements to use for this assignment: research problems, theory, definitions, research questions, or hypotheses. Then, consider how these two elements are related. Finally, consider the topic you plan to use for your Research Proposal (and, potentially, for your dissertation), and why you feel it is a relevant survey research topic.
With these thoughts in mind:
Amanda had to post an explanation of how the two research elements you selected are related. Then describe the topic you plan to use for your Research Proposal and why it is a relevant survey research topic. Justify using empirical citations and examples.
Amanda?s Post is below and I have attached it in a file.
Theory and Hypothesis
Any research study requires some theoretical framework. Theory applies to research in order to guide the research. In order for the scale to measure what it is supposed to, it is essential that the theory used correlates with the variables measured. The theoretical framework provides clarity to the study (DeVellis, 2012).
The presentation of a research study is presented in a concept the researcher has adopted in order to explore a specific phenomenon. A theory is a concept driven by a group of laws or definitions that generalize a causal process that is presented (Reynolds, 2007). When a student is deciding on his or her dissertation topic, theory plays an important role in that decision. Generally students know a broad definition of what their topic is; however, they may not have a theory assigned to that topic yet. If the research is survey, the investigator is attempting to discover whether a problem exists or what is general consensus on a particular subject (Groves, et al., 2009). Theory determines how the questions are worded (Patton, 2015). The questions asked need to model the adopted theory; however, the investigator should remain mindful as to not display bias or ethical concerns in their questions (Bradburn, et al., 2004).
A hypothesis is a scientific assumption (Creswell, 2009). As researchers we assume the outcome of our research question and then test whether our assumptions can be accepted or rejected. Hypotheses center on the theoretical framework. In fact, if the research question is absent of theory, the data is unmeasurable (DeVellis, 2012). As stated before, theory is a concept derived of laws or definitions. The data is only measurable if there are concrete definitions that are theory based (Reynolds, 2007).
At this time, there is an absence of framework, discipline, and coordination of interagency responders as well as volunteers to large-scale disasters (Renaud, 2012). In addition, there is a lack of attention given to the initial chaos that first responders experience when they arrive on scene (Renaud, 2012). A recent study (LeBlanc, McConnell, & Monteiro, 2015) found that emergency response teams, healthcare providers, trainees, and volunteers are vulnerable to emotional escalations that have the ability to interfere with their ability to perform their duties. Fan, French, Stading, and Bethke (2015) also discovered the lack of theoretical framework for public or behavioral health following a large-scale disaster.
Busby and Witucki-Brown (2011) explore the individual process of developing situational awareness (SA) in multi-casualty incidents (MCIs). The need for developing a theoretical framework using SA is imperative in order for first responders to manage contextual situations in which cognitive processes, specifically decision making or problem solving skills, may be impacted by what is happening in their immediate environment. The purpose of this study is to determine if SA can reduce emotional escalations activated by chaos during the early response hours after a large-scale event. Surveys are used to determine whether a problem exists (Groves, et al., 2009). This study will determine whether chaos is an obstacle that results in the loss of life and property.
Bradburn, N., Sudman, S., & Wansink, B. (2004). Asking Questions: The definitive guide to questionnaire design ? for market research, political polls, and social and health questionnaires (Revised edition). San Francisco, CA: Jossy ? Bass.
Busby, S. & Witucki-Brown, J. (2011). Theory Development for Situational Awareness in Multi-Casualty Incidents. Journal of Emergency Nursing. 37(5). 444-452. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2010.07.023. Retrieved from Walden Library Databases June 26, 2016. https://ac.els-cdn.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/S0099176710003405/1-s2.0-S0099176710003405-main.pdf?_tid=cd6a57ae-3bd5-11e6-a17f-00000aab0f02&acdnat=1466970194_b9cef3cbbe582278f06b36fb15a80c72
Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research Design: Mixed Methods Procedures. Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications, Inc.
DeVellis, R. F. (2013). Scale Development Theory and Applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Fan, Y., French, M. L., Stading, G. L., & Bethke, S. (2015). Disaster response: An examination of resource management in the early hours. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 17(2), 22-41. Retrieved from https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/
Groves, R. M., Fowler, F. J. Jr., Couper, M. P., Lepkowski, J. M., Singer, E., & Tourangeau, R. (2009). Survey methodology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
LeBlanc, V.R., McConnell, M. M., & Monteiro, S. D. (2015). Predictable Chaos: A Review of the Effects of Emotions on Attention, Memory, and Decision Making. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 20(1). 265-282.
Patton, M.Q. (2015). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications, Inc.
Renaud, C. (2012). The missing piece of NIMS: Teaching incident commanders how to function in the edge of chaos. The Journal of the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Security Defense and Security, 8(1) Retrieved from https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1266358726?accountid=14872
Reynolds, P. D. (2007). A Primer in Theory Construction. Boston, MA: Paul Davidson Reynolds and Pearson Education, Inc.
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