interview case analysis

Motivation.
Self-motivation is a very much powerful tool to keep moving ahead for leaders and managers in any given organization. Kendy is very good at it, she said: Kendy: everyone have their own emotion, I do too, but I always motivating myself and my employee, I will try my best to solving their problem and communicate with them. And I always to make good workplace, always talk to them should have positive attitude, and the most important thing is money, work for money, work for life. It forms a major reason for the realization of their goals and essential progress. The nature of humans can be very much simple but, again too complex. The understanding of the prerequisite is essential in motivating employees at the workplace. Consequently, the motivation of the employee has been a major central problem for most managers in organizations. Employees who are unmotivated are likely to put very little effort in performing their jobs and sometimes avoid the working place as much as possible, if given a chance, they are likely to exit the organization and produce work of low quality. On the other hand, motivated employees are seen to be more persistent in their work, very creative and, productive thus offering high quality work (Amabile, 2008).
The motivation of the employees is essential to realize performance and the eventual success of the organization is highly considered as an ability function of motivation. Kendy, who is a manager in the restaurant of ‘kickin kasian’ and “boba mike tea” has a very strong positive aspect of motivation by first motivating herself and secondly, motivating her employees. She understands that individuals have their own emotions. Thus, the performance of the workers is highly determined by the ability and motivation that Kendy puts in place. Motivation can also be improved very quickly, through a great number of options that can be employed by managers and involves: reinforcement of high expectations, offering discipline and punishment that are effective, fair treatment of the employee, satisfaction of the needs of employees, setting many goals that are work related, making job restrictions and offering different types of rewards based on the job performance of different employees.
Kendy tries to motivate her employees by trying to solve their problems. She constantly talks to the workers encouraging them to have a positive attitude. She portrays the qualities of a good manager because she is able to create a channel of communication with her workers. Motivation provides a means to lower and manipulate the existing gap in the workplace. It involves including others in a way that is very specific towards the realization of goals of the motivator. (George et al. 2009). Kendy understands that employees can highly be motivated if they have a good life. People spend much of their time in life at the workplace, they therefore work for life. Employees working for life definitely need money for life. This makes a major reason why she believes that the most important thing is money and if employees are paid well, they are much likely to be motivated.
The incentive motivation theory.
A reward, is always presented to an individual after an action has happened with the intention to cause the change in positive behavior to occur again. Research shows that if an individual receives an immediate reward, there would be a greater effect and as the duration lengthens, the effect decreases. Repeated rewarding actions to an individual can cause the action to be a habit and thus continued performance and productivity which is likely to ensure continuous success of an organization. (George et al. 2009).
The Strength of the manager’s motivation skill
If employees are motivated very well, there is no time they will develop a feeling of leaving the company. This makes it a critical property as to why it is critical for the employees to be properly treated, trained and motivated. It always gives them a reason to stay and grow successfully with their company. Proper motivation of the employees can highly save much time, money and other resources of the company thus making it much more cost effective in retaining and keeping the current workers through proper training and proper motivation than engaging in constant recruitment of new employees who will require much more time. (Amabile, 2008).
 
Work stress.
In some workplace, experiencing stress is a normal occurrence, however, excessive stress can highly interfere with the productivity of an individual and impact on one’s health both physically and emotionally. The ways in which one handles and deals with stress can highly define whether he fails or succeeds in undertaking the organizational tasks. Manager Kendy always understands that there is stress at the work place. Everything concerning work makes her feel some stress. If one is not able to control everything in the environment of work, it doesn’t mean that this person is powerless. Finding good ways of managing stress is not all about making some huge changes, it only involves one thing that is often within control of an individual. In the work place, it is a legal responsibility of the employers to realize stress and deal with it so that employees do not become ill. It is essential to handle stress occurring at the place of work as it can lead to other huge problems concerning the working relationships and the environment of work. Major issues may involve the self-esteem that is lowered and the skills of concentration which become very low such that an individual may not be able to perform a simple and obvious task.
Some of the possible causes of excessive stress in the place of work involves high amount of workloads. Kendy says that a lot of customers and too much customer services makes her feel so much stressed at the place of work. Time stress affects most employees, urgent work that contain deadlines that are very much unrealistic may make individuals to rush and work under pressure so as to complete the tasks in time. This results into poor quality of work and individual may even underperform in their special areas of their expertise; at times, there are insufficient workloads which make individuals feel like their skills are much underutilized; poor relationships in the place of work. Poor working relationships result to isolation at the place of work. Some tasks require team work so as to be accomplished, if an individual has a poor relationship with the colleagues, then there is likelihood of possible stress in handling major tasks alone; Individuals being assigned some new jobs in which they do not have sufficient skills or training. Individuals are not exactly sure on what they are supposed to do and often become frustrated with much stress of underperforming; ineffective management systems makes the employees develop a feeling that they are lacking some sense of direction in the organization because their major roles are not clearly defined. Sometimes, their roles get interfered by the seniors which makes them feel very much undervalued; the poor environment of physical working which involves excessive heat, too much cold, noisy place, inadequate low amount of lighting, seating settings that are uncomfortable and the malfunctioning of the work equipment. (George & Brief, 2012).
The Strength of the manager’s skill in managing stress at the work place.
Kendy employs and encourages team bonding and therefore creating a good relationships among the employees so as they are able to solve problems which require team work forces. This is likely to reduce much stress to individuals.Managers are required to encourage their employees to bond well with each other to establish a solid relationship. Employees need to be given a chance so as to share their major complaint where they are experiencing some deficiencies. Many employees are afraid and find it hard to speak openly to their managers. Kendy tries to communicate with her employees and puts lots of efforts in helping them solve their problems. Secondly, the organization can create a pleasant environment for working. There is no individual that can be willing to work in an environment which is very dirty, undesirable noise and highly clattered place. Research has shown that individuals working in cluttered places suffer from much stress and anxiety. This makes it difficult to perform. If organizations create pleasant environments, this could help in the reduction of stress. For example, Kendy says that she always makes the working place good. This is much realistic because high hygienic conditions are required in restaurants since they offer very sensitive services to their customers. Third, involves the flexibility of work schedules. This may not be practical to all businesses. However, allowing some flexibility in work highly lowers employee stress. Sometimes, work itself is not responsible in creating stress, it involves managing some other responsibilities of life ranging from children at home, major household responsibilities, handling spouses in addition to work. Flexibility can highly enable the employees to engage in work remotely and thus reduce stress. Through flexibility in work, Kendly releases stress by listening to music, watching different television shows and playing with her dog. (Viswesvaran et al. 2009).
In conclusion, motivation is much based on the needs of growth. It is a great engine that can guarantee much benefits accruing over a long period. Consequently, reduction of stress at the work place increase productivity due to worker performance. Therefore, employees are the best assets of the organization, and should be well managed to enhance the overall efficiency of the organization.
 
Negative aspects- Weakness.
–Lack of power
Power is essentially one of the critical elements to effective managerial behavior and must be reflected not only through individual traits and situational appropriateness, but also through pragmatic discourses in the day-to-day leadership duties. Access to resources and information coupled with the ability to act quickly enables individuals to accomplish more and disperse the same to subordinates. Consequently, leaders with ‘clout’ tend to receive more preference among many, and at the same time enjoy enhanced status simply based on the perception of being upwardly and outwardly influential (Akdeniz and Stark, 2014). Kendy, on the contrary, does not seem to have the ‘clout’ to push her juniors into completing tasks that they are not willing to. According to the interview, kendy told us that the biggest problem that she has is that her employees are not scare of her. She is an easy going people. She had good relationship with all the employees.All the employees think she is the best manager ever. Because she is very kind to them, always smile, usually she will not force her employees to do the task that they do not want to do. We think, although she is a nice lady. But she is lack of power in her job. Because she is being nice to everybody, that the employee think they are friends, she loses her power in her position  The downside with this is that the employees get to test her limits, and with the realization that she is quite accommodative, even to dissent, perceive her as very weak and thus not worth taking orders and instructions from, at least most of the times.
Lack of power, on the other hand, is a precursor to bossiness at the expense of true leadership. It creates ineffective and desultory management style that does nothing but harm the organization’s profitability. Leaders who are unable to exert such forms of power as coercive, legitimate, reward, referent and expert, to which Kendy technically belong to, are perceived as weak and ineffectual. Kendy seems to be unaware of the fact that power is the ultimate resource to obtaining good results, and its lack, accountability without power, is a precursor to failure and frustration. Leaders who fail to enforce certain conditions on employees are essentially creating breeding grounds for resistance from subordinates, which in the long run might necessitate more punishing forms of power to save the organization. Organizational powerlessness not only spends doom to the business, but also corrupts the leader.
However, even as we agree that the best way of becoming an effective leader is by wielding power, leaders must remain vigilant to the trap enshrined within leadership. The heroic feeling associated with being effective leaders can be the source of failure. While it is difficult for one to avoid the challenges associated with bearing responsibilities, outcomes and uncertainties with the organizational environment, devotion to personal development to cultivate inner compass is essential. Oftentimes, this inner compass might result in such behaviors as observed in Kendy, of being excessively nice to subordinates, in which case the individual might be seeking self-gratification from people at the expense of advancing the wellbeing of the organization.
–Change orientation.
Change orientation is another crucial aspect of effective leadership. A leader who prefers to maintain the status quo, who feels uncomfortable in the face of change and might only consider implementing change when things go dangerously south is an impediment to organizational progress. As observed with Kendy, her confidence towards and perception of change discourses is a recipe for disaster. According the interview she told us sometimes she does not have many self- confidences. So she is not open to changes. She likes everything that she is used to it. Any changes in the job will makes her feel uncomfortable. Kendy lacks a positive attitude towards change, often waiting until circumstances pushes her and the organization to adverse limits before considering implementing change. In an increasingly technologically oriented and information-dependent business world, leaders must be individuals flexible enough to initiate and adopt changes not only whenever there is need for the same, as Kendy seems to think, but also as a means of ensuring competitive advantage to the organization.
Change-oriented leaders tend to promote exploration of new and better ways of production or uncover hidden yet enormous and important potential in people as well as in situations. As noted by Mendenhall et al. (2013), contemporary leaders operate in a world where future discourses in people, skill and information management are uncertain, yet determinedly work towards a better future despite being largely unaware of what it might look like. In fact, change-oriented leaders are risk-takers, individuals who have the audacity to introduce change based on the expectation that improvements are possible along the way, and that experimentation is the ultimate means of tapping into unknown potential. Such are the aspects that Kendy does not have, and while her soft stance on most elements relating to people management and change initiation and implementation might be reflective of soft power, their conservative nature does not align with contemporary business environments. While some of the change initiatives adopted by pragmatic leaders may fail,  at times terribly, others might record success, and form the basis for further potentialities, hence the need for risk-taking.
However, despite the overwhelming support for change oriented leadership, of greater importance in the pursuit of organizational change leadership perspective is the implementation process. The traditional command and control, which exploits the power aspect of leadership, is no longer the most suitable. Though typically the most prominent, its foundation hinges on subtle erroneous assumptions such as that ‘leaders know best’ or the need to control human behaviors during implementation to minimize variations from the initial plan. Probably, such is the approach that Kendy seems to prefer, but the same are not reflected in her general perception towards management. On the contrary, approaches that are more workable ought to embrace co-creation with employees and circumstances alongside transformational leadership discourses that begin with the self, before extending the same to subordinates. Co-creation within the context of transformational leadership entails enhanced cooperation with employees and other stakeholders through e.g. delegation of authority where necessary, allowing free flow and access of information, and extensive employee involvement, among others. Kendy does not seem to support these either, which makes her highly unsuitable for the managerial position.
Individuals tend to show differential attitudes towards change, an aspect that stems from the individual differences in the extent to which one is comfortable with handling issues shrouded in uncertainty. Change orientation and tolerance of ambiguity go hand in hand since the thought processes characteristic of the latter forms the bulk of what shapes the former. Tolerance of ambiguity, according to Wolsey, Minten and Abrams (2011), refers to the extent to which individual feel threatened by, or find it difficult to cope with ambiguous situations, often characterized by rapid or unpredictable occurrence of change, unclear or inadequate information availability, or situations of sheer complexity.Integral to tolerance of ambiguity is thus self-awareness, more so in relation to management, something that Kendy does not seem to possess, in which case a deeper analysis of individual strengths and weaknesses is imperative.
While change is a constant aspect of organizations, however subtle they are, at times the changes might present themselves in the form of rapid experiences that border on chaos. However, we also have to embrace the fact that slow and steady improvement is rare within the context of organizational change. On the contrary, contemporary business and organizational environments tends to lean towards increased agility. Consequently, when faced with rapid change processes, the manner in which individuals handle the accompanying uncertainty determines the prospects of their success, and hence that of the organization. In the resulting frenzy associated with rapid change, individuals who manage to navigate the ambiguity in a rather artful and pragmatic manner emerge as formidable management materials and hence possess advancement potential within the organization.
Uncertainty in organizations might also arise from a lack of clarity in expectations or in the long-term objectives of the organization. Often, this is the result of ineffective management similar to that depicted by Kendy, which in turn is a recipe for observed chaotic change processes. The sources might be communication of mixed signal to employees or dissension towards change by the upper echelons of management, the latter of which is Kendy’s major weakness. Noteworthy though is that most people when faced with such chaotic situations adjust themselves towards coping with the situation or shun all engagements that may expose him/her to the management ambiguity. However, individuals who are able to tolerate the ambiguity and at the same time maintain high productivity levels have the potential of contributing exceptionally to the organization’s objectives. While few such people exist in real life, and obviously Kendy is not one of them, persons who are able to embrace ambiguity confidently and perceive it as an opportunity for personal development or positive change within the organization, its sustainability is still feasible.
Today’s work environment continues to grow increasingly complex. As a result, individuals called upon to provide solutions to complicated situations or deliver quality decisions must rely on more than factual information. Handling ambiguous situations may evoke feelings of ambivalence, or worse still lead to a state of helplessness and indecisiveness. While moving too quickly to making conclusive decisions may be disastrous, sitting back, as it seems to be Kendy’s preferred approach, and hoping to gain better understanding of the situation could be equally catastrophic. Thus, when faced with uncertainties, individuals, employees and senior managerial officers alike ought to recognize the situation as a source of creative energy capable of transforming the self and the organization, hence the need to encourage ambiguity tolerance.
 
 
References
Akdeniz, C. & Stark, J. (2014).The leadership academy: The only leadership book you must read. Business Hacker Books.
Mendenhall, M., Osland, J., Bird, A., Oddou, G., Maznevski, M., Stevens, M. & Stahl, G. (2013). Global leadership 2e: Research, practice, and development. London, Routledge.
Wolsey, C., Minten, S. & Abrams, J. (2011). Human resource management in the sport and leisure industry. London, Routledge.
Amabile, T. M. (2008). Motivational synergy: Toward new conceptualizations of intrinsic and                  extrinsic motivation in the workplace. Human resource management review, 3(3), 185-        201.
George, J. M., Jones, G. R., & Sharbrough, W. C. (2009). Understanding and managing organizational behavior. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Viswesvaran, C., Sanchez, J. I., & Fisher, J. (2009). The role of social support in the process of   work stress: A meta-analysis. Journal of vocational behavior, 54(2), 314-334.
George, J. M., & Brief, A. P. (2012). Feeling good-doing good: a conceptual analysis of the                      mood at work-organizational spontaneity relationship.Psychological bulletin, 112(2),                        310.
 
 

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