re structure the introduction the following
Employee Satisfaction in McDonalds Edinburgh
Please note the following details. Please find the assignment attached to the order.
can you please re structure the introduction the following should be there
a theoretical introduction
organisational introduction very little. a lot of company information in the previous assignment is irrelevant so please remove and highlight how my research will benefit the organisation. please make the intro spot on and precise.
problem identification = added value
aim and objectives to be redone make them SMART focus on satisfaction and dissatisfaction. how will we critically analyse and apply the relevant theories on satisfaction to this case study. please make it smart.
an overview of the rest of the project
please add more references to the literature review. deeper level of critical analysis. influences and effects of interview questions. please ensure the analysis is appropriate and not limited.
research design – deeper analysis. to be
improvise the methodology.
Please formulate 12 questions on job satisfaction the question to be conducted for 9 employees – crew trainer / managers/crew members / part time employees
their response is to be transcribed on paper
the recommendation conclusions are to be modified and altered.
through out the assignment please give importance to WHY?? and SO WHAT to get a better understanding as to the outcomes of every thing and why it is actually happening.
SEA FIELD AND PRINCESS STREET
“Investigating the factors that contribute to employee dissatisfaction or being undecided within the Edinburgh based franchises of McDonalds”
I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Job satisfaction refers to an individual’s, in this case, an employee, feeling or condition of mind occasioned by the nature of their employment. Many factors lead to these attitudes. This report statement endeavors to analyze these factors concerning job dissatisfaction and the lack of decidedness among the employees in the Edinburgh-based franchises of McDonalds. The report will examine the courses of these factors, their effects, solutions (if any) and after that recommend of the way forward for the McDonalds franchise. The McDonald’s fleets of restraints need to develop and evolve their services to attain their employees’ satisfaction. McDonald is an organization provider of Quick Restaurant Services to some of its customers worldwide. The little McDonald restaurant has now grown and given birth to some of the side restaurants under their leading brand name.
McDonald’s restaurant business is a descendant of an ordinary hamburger stand opened and owned by two McDonald siblings, Richard McDonald, and Maurice McDonald. The two brothers in California ran the legendary hamburger stand starting 1940 to 1954. In 1954, Ray Kroc, a man who had sold out his Multimixer milkshake makers to the McDonalds business, visited the restaurant and after that offered to open proposed to open other McDonald’s restaurants. They ended up buying the company any from Dick and Mac McDonald. Kroc oversaw the growth of the restaurants worldwide to a number higher than 30,000 McDonald restaurants operating today with annual revenue, which is greater than $22 billion. The franchise is one of the most inspiring American success stories. The management of the new side restraints spills from the top management. The management shares their management duties with individuals in the different localities who voluntarily joins the business and creates a restaurant under the McDonald’s umbrella.
In the general, the overall performance of the McDonald’s franchises in pleasing and their final level of satisfaction are above average. Despite these impressing results, the franchise has some flows that should be improved. For instance, there exist a want in the use of technology innovations and organizational communications (interactions between departments and employees). As an effort to improve the overall productivity of the business, this proposal suggests a workout on improving the employee satisfaction as a way towards success. This improvement can be made by the creation of incentives, which include part-time workers to relieve the regular employees and to strike a balance between gender and culture. This proposal will majorly focus on the factors that contribute to employee dissatisfaction within the Edinburgh-based franchises of McDonalds
Table of Contents
I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2
1. INTRODUCTION 5
1.1 The McDonalds Corporation 6
1.2 Research Aim 6
1.3 Objectives 7
2. RESEARCH CONTEXT – PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION 8
3. LITERATURE REVIEW 9
3.1 Different perspectives and definitions of Job satisfaction 9
3.2 Theories of job satisfaction 12
4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 22
4.1 Proposed Methodology 22
4.3 Research Approach 23
4.4 Data Analysis 24
5. LIMITATIONS AND KEY ASSUMPTIONS 24
5.1 Ethics Evaluation 25
6. PROPOSED TIME TABLE 25
7.1 Introduction 26
7.2 Conclusions on research findings 26
7.2 Recommendations 27
7.2.1 Recommendations on academic perspective 27
7.2.2 Recommendations on organizational viewpoint 28
7.3 Overall limitations of the research 29
7.4 Conclusion 29
This research focuses on analyzing the levels of employee satisfaction at two Edinburgh based franchises operated by McDonalds Corporation. Employee satisfaction is one of the most critical aspects of human resource management today as it has a direct impact on the productivity of the employees and the ability of a firm to meet its objectives. This is because employees in an organization play the vital role of driving the company’s agenda by implementing strategies and plans (Cajnko, Treven, & Tominc, 2014). With this in mind, several companies conduct employee surveys on a regular basis in order to determine levels of satisfaction or otherwise among their employees. This is an important process in policy development at an organizational level since it helps the company to put in place appropriate strategies to ensure the satisfaction levels are maintained at a higher level.
At McDonalds, Annual Employee Satisfaction surveys have been at the norm for several years at most of its franchises. The owner of Prices Street and Seafield restaurants conducts a regular employee satisfaction survey each year. His surveys are termed as the View Point Focus Group. In one such survey conducted in 2015, the results indicated that approximately 80% of the employees at the franchise were satisfied with their work. On the other hand, approximately 20% of the workforce was unsatisfied or undecided on their status regarding the subject. Consequently, this paper focuses on studying the 20%, and aims to determine why they are reportedly undecided or unsatisfied with their work. This will culminate in relevant recommendations to the organization regarding the appropriate measures the owner or the management needs to take to rectify the situation and improve the levels of satisfaction in the company.
1.1 The McDonalds Corporation
McDonalds Corporation is the leading organization in the production of fast foods globally. The organization, which is based in the US, has expanded rapidly around the world since its inception in 1948. Due to its global reach, with offices and restaurants across all the continents, McDonalds has one of the world’s largest diverse workforces. The company serves food to almost 47 million customers on a daily basis through its more than 31000 restaurants located in about 119 countries around the world. Among its variety of fast foods, include items like a burger, fries, salad and soft drinks.
The company has achieved to grow very fast since its inception due to its values and business approach. For example, the company provides very quick and efficient customer service and with its services and products being standardized in all of its restaurants, customers can always expect the same level of quality. Besides, its product prices are relatively low, coupled with the fact that the environment is also conducive to customers in terms of its hygiene, comfort, and skilled employees. Based on numerous customer management metrics, it is clear that the company’s customers are highly satisfied with the quality of service and products they receive form the giant firm. However, when the same question is posed regarding the employees, who help to keep the customers satisfied, the answer cannot be the same affirmative. Thus, the main question of concern for this research is whether all the employees of the company are satisfied with their work and their work environment and the most appropriate strategies that can help the company’s franchisees improve in this regard.
1.2 Research Aim
The main aim of this research study is to analyze factors that contribute to employee dissatisfaction within the Edinburgh based franchises of McDonalds. This will culminate in appropriate recommendations being made to the franchises in the form of a report, which will inform the company on how they could improve work environments, working conditions, and the other related factors.
The following objectives will enable the implementation of the aim
• To Critically analyze literature on the subject in order to explore the impact of employee dissatisfaction.
• To Critically evaluate and apply relevant theories on employee satisfaction to the McDonalds case study.
• To sufficiently access and analyze both primary and secondary data that will be collected during the study at McDonalds.
• To make appropriate conclusions and recommendations based on the key findings of the study.
2. RESEARCH CONTEXT – PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
Employee satisfaction is a crucial aspect for consideration in human resource management. If this is not properly addressed; employee motivation, engagement, and general productivity are likely to decrease in varying degrees. In other instances, employee turnover can also rise if most of the employees are not satisfied with their work. Low job satisfaction levels can emanate from different factors including issues such as low payments, job insecurity, inadequate recognition, and limited job opportunities as well as limited chances of career progression. With such conditions, employees in the organization become unmotivated to perform better.
Therefore, it is very important for an organization to review satisfaction levels of its workforce in order to devise appropriate policies and strategies for improving its performance. However, the concept of employee motivation is very broad and requires an examination of many other related issues. Therefore, in order to fully understand the satisfaction levels at McDonalds’ franchises, it is crucial to comprehend certain issues such as:
• Pay system
• Work environment and management
• Employee motivation
• Relation between employer and employee and among partners
• Recognition for good work
• Employee professional development
• Career opportunity
Testimonial from the manager of the case study organization reveals that out of these various influential aspects, satisfaction appears to be most directly affected by rate of pay. Whilst pay is the subject of much debate in motivational and employee engagement theories, in reality, the owner of the franchises has evidence to suggest this is pertinent. Therefore, this study proposed deeper analysis of these arguments in light of the fact that McDonalds is renowned for its unique operations and management styles.
3. LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 Different perspectives and definitions of Job satisfaction
Employee satisfaction is a subject that has drawn wide and varied examination throughout the organization behavioral research history. This separate analysis has led to a number of various definitions too. Different researchers have attached various parameters to the definition. However, with varied definitions what has significantly remained constant is the treatment of job satisfaction as an independent variable. In analyzing this independent variable, the researchers from different disciplines have considered both organizational and demographic factors among employees. This section of the research will major in the study of these organizational and demographic factors in relation to employee dissatisfaction in the Edinburgh-based franchises of McDonald. Analysis and evaluation of different research work on job satisfaction in a different related field while drawing comparisons will form a large portion of this subsection. This research will purposely examine the most common models of satisfaction among employees.
Though there exists no standard definition to the term Job satisfaction, it can generally be described as the attitudes of employees towards their employment. Many researchers have studied and worked out a definition to job satisfaction. The definitions have remained varied and there has not been a universally agreed definition of job satisfaction. Here below, are some of the proposed definitions from different researchers in different times chronologically given from the earliest to the most recent studies. In Smith et al. (1969), they described job satisfaction as to the feel of and the employee affective responses to different facet situations. In Lucke (1976), he defined job satisfaction concerning the positivity of state of an employee occasioned by either work experiences or the appraisal in their place of work. Later Spector (1997) defined the phrase as concerning the feel of employees towards their job. He simplifies the definition to the magnitude to which an employee likes (satisfaction) or dislikes (dissatisfaction) their jobs. Price (2001), gives another perspective of job satisfaction definition, he defines it as to how affective-oriented an employee is towards their work. It is the perception and evaluation, by an individual, of the general work environment (Sempane et al., 2002). According to Lu et al., (2005), employee satisfaction is a universal feeling an employee’s work and the attitudes towards the various facets of their work environments. Employee satisfaction is an active state of emotions because of the appraisal of employees or the experiences in their job (Islam and Siengthai, 2009, p.4). In all these definitions, there exists a common aspect in the researcher’s perspectives. All the definitions explain job satisfaction regarding the emotional feeling of employees to their job. This view accommodates both the general perception or attitudes on particular facets of their jobs the different aspects of work may include their working conditions or pay and their colleagues at work (Lu, 2005, p. 211).
Job satisfaction is one of the compound core areas managers’ faces in their day to day activities of management. The complexity of managing the employee satisfaction in a farm arises from its important associated factors. Researchers have proposed workers motivation as a core booster of satisfaction but still this has its limits. Employer’s motivation levels have associated implications on the organization in addition to their impact on productivity thus the entire performance of the organization. It is painful to state that employer satisfaction has not had not been attended entirely in our region. Neither managers nor scholars have devoted their attention to this factor of organizational productivity. The attitudes of the employee determine whether the employee will be contented with his or the level of her performance in the job, and whether or not the employee likes working in the environment provided at the workplace (Baruah & Barthakur, 2012, p.33). Job satisfaction is based on a variety of factors, both extrinsic and intrinsic to the individual employees. In an article (O’Reilly, 2012) it mentions that 108 recent master’s of business administration graduates were surveyed immediately after accepting jobs and again six months later. It was assumed that those graduates who made job choices on intrinsic basis (for instance intrinsic interest in the job and opportunity for advancement) would be more satisfied and committed than those who took the decision based on extrinsic factors (e.g., family concerns and preference for geographic location). Both intrinsic and extrinsic decision factors were positively related to subsequent satisfaction and commitment. A formal correlation analysis showed that an extrinsic job feature (salary) was positively related to future tenure intention and negatively related to job satisfaction (Caldwell, 2012).
To maintain job satisfaction among employees, both the organization, or the employees, and the employees each has a role to play. When the role of improving working conditions and enforcing a change of employee attitude is left only to the employees, the organization is bound to suffer a great deal. The employers may not accurately understand the motivating factors for each employee since each is different. The employees will also feel alienated from the production process since they do not have a role to play in determining how they work. This alienation may have an impact on their overall output.
Work satisfaction is more than just how good an employee feels good about the work. The expectation-outcome relationship may directly determine the degree of satisfaction in employees (Luthans, 1992). As an enforcement of Luthans’ 1992 finding, in 2003, Lambert et al., (2003) worked an experiment, which also proved that employees whose projections did not materialize had a little job satisfaction. In 2001, Ellickson and Logsdon, (2001) conducted a study on job satisfaction. Out of the study, the two found out that personal characteristics and environmental factors as the principal determining factors in employee satisfaction. Ganguly (2010) holds that that employee satisfaction if principally linked with to the employee’s environment. He did his study chiefly to proof this point and through his findings, a most employees attributed their satisfaction to their environment both in and after work. In addition to the environmental factors, other researchers attach employee satisfaction to the employee family factors. The family factors include; communication, co-workers, recognition fringe benefits, organizational systems, work procedures, policies working conditions, compensation, promotion, personal development, appreciation, supervision and security (Ilies et al., 2009; Irving & Montes, 2009; Koonmee et al., 2010). Employee satisfaction can be defined in meeting the employee’s needs. Management scientists propose to organizations wishing to improve employee satisfaction to do so only by meeting their needs. This is the only prime strategy in which an organization can improve its employee’s productivity. The more satisfied an employee is, the more the labor output and hence the overall organization productivity (Giannikis & Mihail, 2011). Giannikis and Mihail’s proposition has not settled well with other researchers. Some of the cotemporary researchers argue that job satisfaction is a collection of factors
An organization needs to gauge and rank the levels of satisfaction in the current state To improve employee satisfaction. This approach forms the basis of any necessary step to the betterment of the employee satisfaction levels (Wright et al., 2005). The lack of an agreed uniform satisfaction evaluation method poses a significant challenge to Wright et al. 3’s strategy. Organizations need first to decide on the strategy and the methods to employ in evaluating their employee satisfaction levels.
Some organizations use anonymous surveys. Such organizations conduct their studies on some defined regular intervals. They analyze the studies and extract meaningful information to measure their employee satisfaction. Though this practice is rarely done in most organizations, it is a good indicator of the organization’s future productivity (Deshpande et al., 2012). Other agencies, organize meeting forums between the top management and the small groups of employees. In these meetings, the juniors are asked questions on their satisfaction (Ybema et al., 2010). The later method of employee satisfaction measurement is, in most cases, ineffective since some of the employees will fail to expose all their concerns in fear victimization. Some employees may be shy or lack an opportunity to express themselves due to masses. Other organizations have embraced the use of exit interviews to measure their employee satisfaction (Schulz, 2001). This employee centered evaluation methods are more reliable and accurate given that the elicit satisfaction information from the employees themselves. Employees are the standards of their satisfaction; using them as the source of information gives the exercise, more credit (Schneider et al., 2003). The literature presented thus far may contain a trace of disagreeing points but on one thing they agree, employee satisfaction is a true projector of the performance and productivity of an organization (Dawal et al., 2002).
3.2 Theories of job satisfaction
Researchers have proposed many theories to relate the different parameters of job satisfaction and how they relate. These ideas strongly intersect with the theories of human motivation. This proposal will analyze four most common methods and their application in the Edinburgh-based franchises of McDonalds. These methods include; motivator-hygiene theory, needs hierarchy theory, Herzberg’s, the Job Characteristics and dispositional approach Model. Following is a concise description of each of the models mentioned above in turns.
Needs theory Hierarchy
Maslow’s needs hierarchy model is among the first ever-proposed theories explaining job satisfaction’s most important contributors. The theory suggests s five hierarchy forms of human needs. These requirements, according to Maslow, form a complete set of human factors contributing to job satisfaction. The five hierarchies consist of self-actualization, physiological needs, esteem, safety, and belongingness/love. Maslow rates these requirements differently in magnitude and importance levels. The hierarchy orders the needs in their levels of essentiality starting with the essential needs at the base level to the secondary needs at the apex of the hierarchy. According to this model, the important employee needs should be met to improve their job satisfaction include; psychology and safety needs which come before more complex needs, belonging and esteem. Figure 3 below is a pictorial representation of Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs model.
Maslow developed this theory as an explanation of human motivation in the broad sense. Due to the unusual nature of most human motivation and job satisfaction factors, the theory has been applied in many job satisfaction explanations
In an organization setting, psychological needs of an employee can be met by the provision of healthcare services and through financial compensation. An organization can only realize the safety needs of their employees by providing physical security in the work environments as well as providing for job security assurance through a structured company [policies and structures. Satisfying the safety needs of employees enables them to develop a sense of belonging. The employees feel they are part of the organization’s existence. The feeling of belonging builds positivity in the employees. This will help foster employees’ relationships with their workmate colleagues, supervisors and the whole system at large. In turn, this creates a sense of satisfaction in the employees. Satisfied employees will now want to feel their value in the organization. The employees will seek to know how the organization or fellow work mates value their existence in the job. After an employee meets all the above-listed factors, they will now find self-actualization. This is the final step in Maslow’s model where the employees are motivated to develop themselves to their visions, the employees here, cultivates their need to grow and develop to what they can be.
Maslow’s levels, though different they may seem, they transitions from one step to the other contributes to the overall self-actuation process. An organization, Edinburgh-based franchises of McDonalds, in this case, will endeavor to meet the basic needs of employees. This approach will automatically provide for transition to the proceeding levels, which could otherwise be tough to achieve independently (Hackman, 1975, p. 161)
This model has lost popularity due to its lack to accommodate for the cognitive factors of employees and its lack of scientific evidence that can be proved to ascertain its workability. In addition to this shortcoming, there is a lack of a precise definition of clear definition and understanding of the last and most determining factor of job satisfaction. Self-actuation does not have a defined measurement strategy to value its extents of successfulness or when it is realized.
This theory is an outcome of Herzberg’s dedicated efforts in explaining job satisfaction. Herzberg separates the two words, satisfaction, and dissatisfaction as two distinct and sometimes unrelated concepts. The theory gives the importance of meeting other motivating factors to improve an employee’s level of satisfaction. These motivating factors include; recognition, achievement, and pay in conjunction with benefits.
In contrast to Maslow’s needs hierarchy model, Herzberg’s model associates hygiene factors (these; job security, working conditions, job security, company policies and structure, management quality and interaction with colleagues ) with the dissatisfaction of employees in their jobs. Both motivational factors and hygienic factors are viewed independently. This independent view of motivational factors and hygienic factors leads to the conclusion that employees can be neither satisfied nor dissatisfied. A graphical representation of this theory is as shown in the figure below;
This model explains that a small hygienic factor implies dissatisfaction but on the other hand healthy levels also implies the employees is either neutral or dissatisfied but not necessarily satisfied. Whether or not the employee is satisfied or not satisfied relies on motivator factors. It is when motivator factor are met that employees are happy. Herzberg’s separation helps in evaluating the complexity of an employee’s feelings to either satisfied or not satisfied. Satisfaction and dissatisfaction may both occur simultaneously as an employee may both feel satisfied and dissatisfied at the same time.
The Motivator-Hygiene theory, when it was introduced, it provided a crucial distinguishing factor between an employee’s job satisfactions and dissatisfaction. This theory has lost his vigor to the lack of substantial empirical support. Researchers have criticized Herzberg’s initial study of being based on weak methodologies. Preceding tests on the theory has realized varying results adding to the shortcomings of the theory. There is a mixed perception concerning the theory from different researchers; some are for while some are against the method (Manisera et al., 2005; Hill, 1986, p. 36)
Job Characteristics Theory
This theory explains that total satisfaction occurs when the working place supports intrinsic motivating features. The method concentrates on five major job characteristics. These features include; a variety of skills, an identity of the task, the significance of the work, feedback, and autonomy. These features influence three major psychological states as summarized in figure 5 below
(Hackman et al., 1975, p. 161)
Job satisfaction is a potential outcome of the three states of psycho-sociology.
Therefore, in line with this methodology thinking, the Edinburgh-based franchises of McDonalds should endeavor to improve these five job dimensions to better the employees’ work environment as a necessary consequent, increase their levels of job satisfaction.
The job characteristic Model (JCM) provides for a more empirical support for its facts. With the empirical support, however, the model has received significant criticism majorly on the three psychology states. Despite the criticisms, the model has undergone three reviews and thus increased its acceptance and applicability (Fried and Ferris, 1987, p. 287; Roberts et al., 1981, p. 193; Loher et al. 1985, p. 280).
Dispositional approach model suggests a close link between job satisfaction and an employee’s personality. The theory postulates that the personality of an individual, directly influences the level of satisfaction and that this effect remains relatively stable and constant across different trades of the individual (Judge et al., 1997, p. 151). The model provides evidence to its propositions in two ways, indirect and direct studies.
The indirect proof is based on studies that do not precisely measure individuals’ personality. Studies have shown that level of job satisfaction of a person remains constant for a period two to five years. A study in America, National Longitudinal Study, affirms to this point. This study attaches the factor of constant job satisfaction levels to even a change in employments (Staw et al., 1985, p. 469). A research study attributed to this constancy to genetic factors at a level of thirty percent. The study involved twins raised independently in different environments (Arvey et al., 1989, p. 187)
This approach has attracted criticism in that it does not account for many factors. The factors that are not accounted for are believed to have a significant effect on the job satisfaction results. The critics contrast the approach to the respective significance of researches directly analyzing personality as a player in job satisfaction. Most outstandingly, there is a research proof that self-efficacy, self-esteem, the locus of control and emotional stability account for a significant view of individuals on themselves. An evaluation of one hundred and sixty-nine correlations between four affective constructs and job satisfaction established the fact that as a personal assessment of self-esteem levels, self-efficacy, the locus of control and emotion stability raised caused a corresponding increase in the job. The four affective constructs used in this study are; locus of control, self-esteem, emotional stability and self-efficacy (Judge and Bono, 2001, p. 80)
As an addition to the above-reviewed studies on job satisfaction, in the year 2006, Christen et al. (2006), in the spirit of opening up the subject of job satisfaction, Christen et al. came up with a job satisfaction model. In their model, they related four factors concerning job satisfaction. The factor is role perception, job performance, job-related factors and firm performance. The table describing the four elements is as shown in the figure below bellow
Rapid changes that have occurred in the global marketplace due to technological changes demand that employees be given the responsibility to impact on their attitudes in the workplace and ensure job satisfaction. The role of the employer should be limited to employing highly skilled individuals and creating a good organizational culture that allows employees to develop their careers (Cheema et al., 2015, p.40).
Some of the factors that employees consider important for their satisfaction can be summarized as shown in the image below
Ensuring job satisfaction and the right attitudes in the workplace is, therefore, a joint responsibility of both employers and employees. The role of employees in ensuring job satisfaction is to work on their personalities in order to have a positive outlook on life. Research shows that individuals with a general positive outlook in life have a higher chance of being satisfied with their jobs and having the right attitudes (Fu and Satish Deshpande, 2014, p.340). Employees derive satisfaction from the results of their work. They, therefore, have a role in working hard to have a better outcome and keep them motivated.
One of the theoretical models that can be used to understand employee satisfaction in the workplace is Herzberg’s ‘two-factor’ theory, which was developed in the 1950s. The theory puts more emphasis on the issues within the workplace, which motivates employees or creates room for them to be satisfied in the workplace. The two factors are identified as motivators and hygiene factors. Herzberg identified the motivators in the workplace as comprising of issues such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, and advancement. On the other hand, the hygiene factors include issues such as monetary rewards, competent supervision, policy and administration, working conditions, and security (Ölçer, 2015, p.127). This theory implies that satisfaction and dissatisfaction should be viewed as complementary aspects of the job, rather than just satisfaction being the lack dissatisfaction, as there are many other factors to consider.
The success of any business depends on the levels of satisfaction of its employees. When employees are more satisfied with their work, they are bound to be more productive. On the other hand, dissatisfied employees are very costly to businesses as they lead to poor results. Employee satisfaction is one of the most significant functions of the human resource department in any company. It comprises of the relationship that exists between the organization and its employees (Cajnko et al., 2014, p.301). It is a workplace approach that aims at ensuring employees in an organization is committed to helping the company achieve its goals and objectives. It is a concept closely related to employee engagement, which entails ensuring that an organization’s workforce is well motivated to contribute effectively towards the success of the organization while also enhancing their wellbeing.
As early as 1965 and 1981, Kornhaurser, (1965); Khaleque, (1981), respectfully in their pieces of literature, indentified Job satisfaction as a key player in an employee’s wellbeing and health. The health status and well-being of an employee affect the production of an organization positively concerning turnover and absenteeism. Health workers are more likely to report to their duties and perform better compared to ailing employees. For the better performance of the Edinburgh-based franchises of McDonalds, The management should embrace better health and environmental wellbeing of their employees to foster their productivity. Well cared for employees will have little probabilities of leaving the organization for another job. This will reduce the hiring, training and fire costs of the institutions and hence add to its profits (Vroom, 1964; Locke, 1976; khaleque, 1984). The proposition that job satisfaction is directly propositional to the organization’s performance is a long held view and researchers have worked to proof it since times of the old (Vroom, 1964). These researchers base their arguments on the notion that satisfaction of employees naturally leads to better performance .Job satisfaction to performance relationship has become a tradition in the industrial-organizational research psychology. Organizational theories base the productivity of employees on whether the employees are happy with their organizations or not.
This study will use both primary and secondary information collection methods to gather data about employee engagement in the company. Primary data will be brought in through from surveys in conjunction with interviews while secondary data will be gathered from various sources, which include
4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.1 Proposed Methodology
A research methodology can be understood as the systematic investigation conducted to uncover appropriate ways of resolving problems of a varied nature through a research study. Methodology in research entails the framework that was used by the researcher to arrive systematically at new information regarding particular phenomena. This study will be based on a research approach identified by Saunders et al. (2000), which uses the analogy of the onion to describe the stages of conducting a research study; hence its name the Saunders Research Onion Approach. In this approach, the authors compared the research process to an onion, which is made up of various layers within its structure.
4.2 Research Philosophy
The research philosophy describes the set of beliefs about the nature of the reality that the study is investigating. The type of issues being investigated through the research project informs the choice of a research philosophy. The interpretive research paradigm is based on a qualitative research design. The ontology of such a paradigm is based on the knowledge derived from contextual and social ways of understanding relationships between different phenomenons. Conversely, from an epistemological perspective, interpretivism involves how someone’s unique worldview is understood. The methods used in conducting studies based on an interpretive paradigm include case studies, ethnography, and interviews among other approaches.
4.3 Research Approach
This study will be based on both primary and secondary methods of data collection. Primary methods of data collections employed in this research will be the use of interviews. Secondary sources of data such as library books, journals, and periodicals journals as well as relevant Internet sources will also be very helpful.
The sample size to be studied includes both men and women who are employees of McDonalds at Edinburgh-Seafield and Princes Street restaurants. The sample size was selected using random sampling from among the restaurant’s employees who participated in the 2015 annual employee survey. The main methods of data collection from the participants in the study will be note taking through personal interviews. The personal interviews will seek to find out the issues that the employee will bring up, which they feel affect their satisfaction levels. The interviews will be open-ended with structured questions that would be guidance throughout the process.
The interviews were preferred as the best method of data collection in this study for various reasons. For example, interviews will give the research an opportunity to engage with the respondents, gauging their feelings and attitudes when discussing several issues. This will be important in assessing the impact of employee satisfaction in the company. The interviews will also be conducted on a personal level, allowing the employees the freedom to express themselves. This is unlike other methods such as surveys or focus groups, which lack the personal aspect. Besides, methods such as the surveys and focus groups will limit the employees to respond to few questions while in interviews, the research can discuss a wide range of related issues with the respondents.
4.4 Data Analysis
The data collected will be carefully analyzed so as to develop a more reliable report with significant findings. Data collected will mainly be qualitative and will require qualitative methods of data collection. The stages of data analysis will be data cleaning, sorting the data, analyzing the quality of the data, initial analysis and the final analysis report.
The interviews will be analyzed to filter relevant information for this research. After filtering the data, the researcher will sort fine data out in terms of the quality of the information contained in them with regard to this research. An initial analysis will be conducted before proceeding to write the final report with relevant recommendations.
5. LIMITATIONS AND KEY ASSUMPTIONS
This study will also be based on various assumptions. For example, the study will assume that the factors affecting employee dissatisfaction at the two franchises of McDonalds studied in this research will apply to all the other branches of the company. As such, the recommendations provided will be used for focused on the whole firm rather than just the two branches. Furthermore, the study also assumes that the results gathered from the views collected from the representative sample of the employee can be generalized to cover all the employees in the company.
On the other hand, this study also has numerous limitations that need to be considered. One such limitation is time and other resource constraints. The topic of employee satisfaction is very broad and requires an examination of many different issues. In order to explore all the factors involved diligently, it will require a lot of time and other resources such as personnel, which this study may not have the capacity to accommodate.
5.1 Ethics Evaluation
While conducting the interview it will be ensured that no questions would be asked that would hurt an employee’s feelings or that would lead to de-motivation. Hence, the questions that are structured in advance will be drafted carefully to guarantee the same.
6. PROPOSED TIME TABLE
ACTIVITY DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JUL
1.Read Literature * *
2. Strategies Aim and Objectives * *
3. Formulate a structure (Contents) * *
4. Read the methodology *
5. Show first draft to supervisor for approval *
6. Work on feedback and improvising on existing work *
7. Finalizing the proposal for submission *
8. Work on scoping study * *
9. Conduct the interviews and achieve primary data * *
10. Recorded data to analyze – Primary vs. Secondary *
11. Finalize the scoping study for submission *
12. Finding suggestions and drawing conclusions based on key findings in comparison to key literature * *
13. Draft Dissertation *
14. Presentation to supervisor for approval *
15. Finalize Research and Submit *
7. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
In this final chapter of the research proposal, I have presented conclusive and recommendations remarks about this research project. Here also are other significant issues, on the subject matter, which include self-reflection on project, prospective research, overall limitations of the research ideas and opportunities among others.
7.2 Conclusions on research findings
On the data and information presented in the foregoing chapters I have made the following summary on the findings of the research,
1. Employee job satisfaction is a common aspect for any organization that is subjective in nature and varies from organization to organization and employee to employee. Employee satisfaction also varies depending on the kinds of trade the organization is involved. An organization has the obligation to develop policies that work for the good of the business and this can only be realized through good policies that help to improve employee satisfaction. Employee satisfaction will breed good services and thus customers will be more satisfied. This strategy is especially good in organizes like McDonalds franchises which deals with fast foods. This will effectively work towards the organization objectives. Several common factors affecting employee satisfaction exist. In the research, I have identified a number of these factors affecting McDonalds franchises in Edinburgh UK. Some of the identified factors include; Pay system, Work environment and management, Employee motivation , Relation between employer and employee and among partners, Recognition for good work, Employee professional development and Career opportunity. The factors also extend to the employee-to-management relationship, the quality of services achieved by the employees in relation to the expected quality, the physical setting of the franchises, incentives from the management and the involvement of the employees in the organization decision making. The brand image is also a factor of employee satisfaction.
2. Different organizations use different approaches to satisfy their employees. McDonald’s has employed a number of these approaches to raise their employee satisfaction levels. Some of the approaches they have employed include; collecting employee feedback, exit surveys and employee management joint forums through which employees share their experiences and expectations on the franchise. After collecting the employee feedback, the management works on meeting the employee expectations thus improving their satisfaction. This approach has leads to higher performance indices.
3. Edinburgh McDonalds franchises have both male and female employees. The ratio of male to female employees tends to one signifying a balance in gender. Through the analysis of the employees’ age it is evident that there exists some disparity between the adult to young ratio. The franchises mainly have young employees. This is probably because the restaurants engage in swift activities that require the more active tender aged individuals.
From the results obtained from the questionnaire survey, it is evident that most of the McDonalds employees are satisfied with the conditions of work. Most of them appreciate their overall conditions.
7.2.1 Recommendations on academic perspective
1. From the literature review, there is a lack of proper knowledge on employee satisfaction at McDonald’s Edinburgh franchises. The research findings prove that research report statement will help close the gaps of these gaps in knowledge as it pertains to employee satisfaction at McDonald’s Edinburgh franchises.
2. In the literature review, it is evident of the common factors affecting employee satisfaction in quick service industries, especially the food industry like in the case in McDonald’s Edinburgh franchises. The collected primary data reveals alike findings on possible factors affecting employee satisfaction at a restaurant. The common noted factors include Pay system, Work environment and management, Employee motivation , Relation between employer and employee and among partners, Recognition for good work, Employee professional development and Career opportunity have a critical influence on employee satisfaction in the quick service industry like in McDonald’s Edinburgh franchises.
7.2.2 Recommendations on organizational viewpoint
1. Employee satisfaction is a major concern for businesses, particularly for a restaurant company. The reviewed literature shows that employee satisfaction is a vital player in gaining competitive strength in markets and also achieve significant success in comparison to other similar business competitors already out in the market. The interviews and survey outcomes also depict the same perception on employee satisfaction. This has helped to meet the employee expectations and needs aimed at competing in the market and by this; the organizational objectives and goals are achieved. From these findings, it is save to conclude that McDonald’s Edinburgh franchises have a clear focus on their employee satisfaction to contend and thus achieving organizational objectives and goals.
2. The findings from the primary research depicts many of the employees as satisfied with the management policies and practices in terms of employee satisfaction compared to similar in trade competitors. Thus, from the case studied, McDonald’s Edinburgh franchises should persist and /or improve on the existing policies and practices to better employee satisfaction. McDonald Edinburgh franchises should bring in new practices and policy systems, which focus on increasing overall employee satisfaction bettering the business productivity.
3. McDonalds Edinburgh franchises should maintain their existing policies and practices on Employee hiring and better the incorporating of the elderly to strike balance in their employee composition. This will create a good impression to the workers and the society and thus improve on employee satisfaction.
Finally, on the case studied, McDonald Edinburgh franchises and employ more resources to employee satisfaction to bring on both the portion of employees not satisfied with the current system. Though the percentage of unsatisfied employees is small, it is worth bringing them to a common goal to prevent probable increase in dissatisfaction. This will even reduce costs, which may be incurred due to employee overturn.
7.3 Overall limitations of the research
During the research study process I encountered a number of problems which an effect to overall outcome of the study. The major shortcoming was the limited resources in terms of time and capital in the study. This forced me to limit the number of interviewees and the number of places and trips to the study areas.
With these challenges and the other minor unmentioned challenges the results of the study may have been negatively affected in some measure. Due to this the analysis provided about the factors that contribute to employee dissatisfaction or being undecided within the Edinburgh based franchises of McDonalds may not be very conclusive.
In line with overall study and explanations on the various concerns and issues in the study of employee satisfaction in Edinburgh based franchises of McDonalds, the franchises have focused on employee environment satisfaction and the overall improvement of the employee job satisfaction. This commitment has kept the McDonalds at the top.
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Research/ context Central Themes Key Issue References
Maslow’s needs hierarchy model
Self-esteem, Self- Actualization, Love and Belonging as a set of human factors contributing to job satisfaction
Important employee needs should be met hierarchically to improve their job satisfaction.
Hierarchy forms of human needs.
Herzberg’s Representation Employees expect; recognition, achievement and better pay in conjunction with other benefits
Hygiene factors are associated with dissatisfaction Satisfaction and dissatisfaction Collins, 2002.
Three states of psycho-sociology Total satisfaction occurs when the working place supports intrinsic motivating features.
Intrinsic motivating features influence core job dimensions, critical psychological states and personal and work outcomes Major job characteristics Hackman et al., 1975, p. 161, Fried and Ferris, 1987, p. 287; Roberts et al., 1981, p. 193; Loher et al. 1985, p. 280
Independence of motivational factors and hygienic factors Employees can be neither satisfied nor dissatisfied.
Satisfaction relies on motivator factors
Employee satisfaction Collins, 2002, p. 237
Factors of job satisfaction Personality of an individual directly influences their level of satisfaction.
Satisfaction remains constant with change in employment. Job satisfaction and an employee’s personality Judge et al., 1997, p. 151, Staw et al., 1985, p. 469, Arvey et al., 1989, p. 187, Judge and Bono, 2001, p. 80, Christen et al. (2006
Model of planning methodology Research methodology is a systematic investigation.
Research process is like an onion with layers
Research methodology layers Saunders et al. (2000),
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