Can someone please answer these questions that is due today 4/19/18 @2pm. please.. Thank You
Neurons, Nervous System, and the Brain
- Describe the basic organization of the nervous system.
- Know the difference between: gray and white matter, sensory and motor, CNS and PNS, neuron and nerve
- Describe the typical parts of a neuron.
- Recognize differences in neuron structure and related function.
- Recognize the different types of neuroglia in the CNS and PNS.
- Know the relationship of neuroglia to neuron function.
- Describe what factors contribute to a resting membrane potential.
- Know the events that lead to an action potential and how the action potential is propagated.
- Be able to differentiate between saltatory and continuous conduction. Discuss their role in speed of transmission, and any other factors that effect speed. Why are their differences in speed?
- Understand the role of myelin in action potential transduction. What are the cells that produce myelin and where are they found?
- Describe how a neuron processes different types of synaptic potentials.
- Know examples of neurotransmitters and how they are regulated.
- How do common drugs like alcohol, cocaine, and opiates affect the brain?
- Consider how neuronal function would be effected if key parts such as myelin sheaths, Na/K pumps, neurotransmitter degradation/uptake or synaptic vesicle release were disrupted (consider this in terms of all the major players-the list below is a good place to look for candidates).
- Be able to define or use in a sentence the following terms: neuroglia, myelin sheath, dendrites, synapse, resting potential, threshold, action potential, depolarize, hyperpolarize, neurotransmitter, nodes of Ranvier, refractory, saltatory conduction, synaptic vesicle, synaptic cleft, integration, afferent, efferent, axon
- Describe the structure, location and primary function of the layers that surround the brain and spinal cord.
- Describe the overall organization of the brain. Note significant separations and paired structures.
- Describe the significance of the brain stem to frontal lobe progression of “human characteristics” from base animal functions.
- Name and describe the functions of the lobes of the cerebral cortex. Know the important functional differences of the pre- and postcentral gyri.
- Know the location of the ventricles, and their role in the CNS.
- Describe the main parts and functions of the diencephalon. Describe the importance of the limbic system.
- Describe the main parts and functions of the brain stem.
- Compare the cerebellar and cerebral cortical structure.
- Describe the regulating functions of the cerebellum.
- Know the functions of the cerebrum, cerebellum, hypothalamus, Broca’s area, medulla oblongata, Wernicke area, corpus callosum, pituitary, amygdala, and each of the lobes.
- Describe the components of a peripheral nerve.
- What’s up with all the nerves in the abdominal region? How is the autonomic nervous system involved?
- Know the overall organization of the spinal cord including regions of gray and white matter and regional differences such as the cervical and lumbar enlargements.
- Describe the connections responsible for reflex arcs and why they are organized in this way. Why do reflexes exist?
- What is the significance of Phineas Gage and how did he help us learn about the brain?
- How does memory work?
- Know the location and functions of the dorsal and ventral roots.
- Describe the organization of nerve fibers from the spinal roots through the plexus and into the peripheral nerves.
- Identify the names of the common plexuses.
- Describe the functional and structural differences between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. Know the neurotransmitters and their functions for each system.
- A common mnemonic for the sympathetic and parasympathetic system is to associate the sympathetic system with sex and the parasympathetic system with post-sex. Why does this help you remember the difference between these?
- Briefly describe how the same neurotransmitter may cause different effects in each cell.
- Be able to define or use in a sentence the following terms: meninges, gyrus, sulcus, basal nuclei, cortex, interneuron, hemisphere, plexus, preganglionic, postganglionic.
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