The problem of focus in this paper is the need to protect young children from exposure to nicotine through smokers though they themselves are not smoking.

The problem of focus in this paper is the need to protect young children from exposure to nicotine through smokers though they themselves are not smoking.
This is because it has been known to be a major cause of respiratory illnesses. It has also been stated to be caused by contaminants that diffuse to the cigar paper, exhaled smoke and also through puffs emitted by smokers (Chan & Lam, 2006). It has also been shown that such smoke is found to be a co-carcinogen and increases the prevalence of carcinogenesis of the lung, bronchitis and pneumonia. This problem has also been seen to have increased incidences to children whose parents are smokers. This problem has been well stated with demographics being provided to ratify these claims; these demographics showed that majority of smokers were men, and most of their children had tendency to get associated diseases. The rationale of this study is to find out the effectiveness of education to mothers who have ill children with the aim to deter them from exposure. As supposed it is at the end of the introduction and clearly outlines the reason behind the study but does not give light to the consequences of study. Concepts that are crucial in this study are the significance of nursing in intervening where dire medical attention is required using clinical trials that are random and controlled. This paper has the hypothesis that there is a significance difference in intervention of nursing in managing sickness from cigarette smoke with that of no intervention answering the question of how significance the intervention is (Chan & Lam, 2006). This is however vague and can not be easily pointed out from an instance look at the paper but is derived from the results. The theoretical framework of this paper is wanting since though related directly to the thesis and having variables and construct it does not thoroughly analyze major concepts using certain social discipline theories except that of reasoned action that is long outdated since it is of 1967 (Chan & Lam, 2006) and does not clearly elucidate assumptions made which are must for any research paper and it is not up to date since it gives demographics of the ranging between the 90s an early 2000. The logic used is that their is an increase in diseases related to passive smoking and that they require to be addressed using nursing principles to reduce exposure and manage the diseases from getting worse. The literature review is not well organized since it should start generally then become specific as on progress while for this case it’s the contrary since it starts with the cohorts of cigar smoke exposure, it does not clearly outline the themes of this paper since it focuses more on demographics but it consolidates previous research results concerning the topic. It is also not broad and has been merged with the introduction while they are supposed to be two different entities. However to some extent it is relevant to the study of this paper though not elaborative enough.
Methods
This is a randomized controlled trial study and is effectively reliable for hierarchical scientific studies since it is effective in countering selection bias and can reduce spurious results that can not be easily analyzed. This is seen to have helped in effecting the inclusion criteria to select the participants of the study. It is also effective in this study since it helped to obtain information from human experiences thus enable the measuring of exposure consequences. It counters the errors of questionable extrapolation from experimental animals and uses questionnaires which can be referred to. It is however not the best method since it relies on observations and can not ascertain that the children in this case are suffering due to smoke exposure (Chan & Lam, 2006). The design is related to the sampling since samples using the questionnaires are collected from persons of different backgrounds of Hong Kong but in the first collection of information is not randomized thus an anomaly with the reasoning to test the feasibility of the study. The descriptive results obtained from the design are then statistically analyzed using the chi square, t-test, F-test with the help SSPS version11.0. The sampling is not clearly described since we are only given the methods used for selection and the collection of the data but we are not given the details of the participants who full agreed to participate in the study. We are not also told about the participants’ details such as age groups; sex and also specific medical anomalies in question not until in the release of the results thus the details provided are insufficient. The justification for the sample is not given and the study protocol used is not concise since it only gives details of instructions to be followed, when but does not give demographics concerning the specific participants in every test. It is however efficient since it follows the principles of good clinical practices of confirming consent of participants and also testing the feasibility of the project. The main concept to be measured is any significant change for the health of children whose parents have been educated to prevent smoke exposure and those of controls which has been tackled well but much emphasizes have been put in preventing the smoking act other than avoiding of the child’s exposure to the smoke resulting to reduced consistent of the operations with the definitions given. The details of validity of the methodology used is not provided but external and internal validity are dealt with through randomization, frequent follow up through calls and questionnaires, measure of the outcomes but does not fully explain the characteristics of subjects and has no clear elucidation of patients characteristics. Consent of participants was sought and permission to withdraw at will was granted (Chan & Lam, 2006). There was no issue of concern about the ethics since they were approved by Hong Kong University though not by a recognized medical body. This procedure can be replicable only if more details concerning the participants, the use of the given values and the coherence of the procedure of selection, experiments done and data sampling are given unlike the current case of the article.

 
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