The two organ systems responsible for control and maintenance of the human body are: A)  CNS and PNS B)  CNS and endocrine C)  endocrine and ANS D) ANS and PNS E)  lymphoid and endocrine

38. The ________________ is the functional unit of _______________ muscle(s).

A) sarcomere/smooth

B) sarcoplasmic reticulum/skeletal

C) sarcomere/skeletal

D) sarcomere/skeletal and cardiac

E) neuromuscular junction/smooth, skeletal, and cardiac

39.  Muscle names include references to their ….

A) orientation of fibers

B) primary function

C) shape and size

D) origin or insertion

E) all of the above

40. Muscles of the axial skeleton  _____________________ and work together to ________________________.

A) are flat and sheet-like / movement of the appendages

B)  are wide in the middle with tapered tendinous attachments/ move air into and out of the lungs

C) are flat and sheet-like / alter pressure in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

D) insert under the skin of the face/ create facial expression

E) C & D

41. Skeletal muscle fibers are of three types and distinct from one another based on

A) size and color

B) contraction speed and fatigue resistance

C) myoglobin content and capillary supply

D) density of mitochondria and substrates used for ATP generation

E) all of the above

42. Which of the following are important to understanding how skeletal muscle contracts and generates force?

A) Sliding Filament Theory

B) Cross-Bridge Cycle

C) anatomy of the neuromuscular junction

D) ACh action at the synaptic cleft and development of an AP (action potential) at the post-synaptic membrane

E) all of the above

43.  Which of the following is NOT true regarding the pelvic and/or pectoral girdles.

A) girdle musculature stabilizes the ball-in-socket joint of the shoulder and hip

B) they have the same degree of mobility

C) the glenohumeral joint is the most frequently displaced joint in the human body

D) the clavicle is the only bony connection between the arms and axial skeleton

E) the acetabulum stabilizes the head of the femur to a greater degree than the scapula stabilizes the head of the humerus

44. Which of the following accurately describe the function of the abdominal girdle?

A) the girdle (when strong) lifts the abdominal viscera up and back toward the spinal column

B) a strong abdominal girdle can reduce the likelihood of abnormal spinal curvature (e.g. lordosis)

C) when the abdominal girdle is strong, back injuries are less likely to occur

D) a strong abdominal girdle helps center body weight in the lumbar portion of the spinal column

E) all of the above

45.  When ________________ muscles contract forcefully while holding one’s breath, also known as the _________________ maneuver, pressure in the __________________ cavity can increase dramatically causing ____________ of viscera.

A) thoracic/Valsalva/cranial/herniation

B) abdominal/Valsalva/abdominal/varicosity

C) pelvic/reflex/abdominal/vasodilation

D) abdominal/Valsalva/abdominopelvic/herniation

E) ventilation/hyperventilation/thoracic/reflux

46. The relationship between the muscles of the lower arm and leg relative to the hands and feet is:

A) intrinsic

B) synergistic

C) extrinsic

D) antagonistic

E) there is no relationship between them

47. The two organ systems responsible for control and maintenance of the human body are:

A)  CNS and PNS

B)  CNS and endocrine

C)  endocrine and ANS

D) ANS and PNS

E)  lymphoid and endocrine

48.  All sensory stimuli are received at ____________ and travel to the ________________ via __________________ pathways.

A) effectors/cerebellum/afferent

B) receptors/cerebrum/afferent

C) receptors/cerebellum/efferent

D) effectors/cerebrum/afferent

E) receptors/diencephalon/efferent

49. Intentional skeletal muscle movement originates at the _______________ and travels to _________________ via __________________ pathways.

A) prefrontal cortex/receptors/afferent

B) precentral gyrus of the primary motor cortex/skeletal muscle effectors/efferent

C) postcentral gyrus of the primary sensory cortex/ visceral effectors/ efferent

D) occipital lobe/skeletal effectors/afferent

E) temporal lobe/skeletal muscle effectors/efferent


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